Celera uses 3 methods for biomarker discovery:

  1. Genotyping looks at single letter substitutions in the genetic code. These genetic variations are called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs).

  2. Gene Expression analysis identifies patterns in gene activity, determining if a gene is “switched on or off” to produce RNA signals to manufacture proteins.
  3. Proteomics uses mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins on the surface of cancer cells. Then, serum from patients with cancer is tested to see if the informative proteins are present and predictive of disease. Protein biomarkers can be detected with simple immunoassays that can be used in diagnostic products to monitor residual disease or the recurrence of cancer.